We are ecstatic to share that 50 Fifty DTC has another feather to add to its cap: Our office-tower project in the Denver Tech Center took home a Design Excellence Merit Award at the Architectural Institute of America Western Mountain Region’s (AIA WMR) 2020 Design Awards.
“It is an incredible honor to be mentioned among the other award winners and to be recognized by our peers,” says Matt Robertson, President of Clutch Design Studio. “Winning awards is never a goal during the design process, but I think all designers appreciate having projects and clients that are of a high enough caliber to be considered for these awards.”
Each year, the AIA WMR Design Awards recognize excellence in design, planning and construction in projects built around the globe by architects based in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming. The intent is to honor the highest design standards in response to user requirements, site, context, climate and environment.
Unfortunately, out of safety precautions during the COVID-19 pandemic, AIA WMR was forced to present the 2020 Design Awards virtually this year—but that didn’t dampen the Clutch team’s excitement. “After some initial whoops and hollers, we all just let the gravity of the recognition sink in throughout the day. Certainly a special moment,” Robertson says.
The Anatomy of a Visionary Knockout
When we broke ground on the 400,000-square-foot, 12-story 50 Fifty DTC office tower in 2016, we knew it would shine brightly among the sea of homogenous buildings and parking lots in the suburban office park area of south Denver. And in 2018, we unveiled its striking appearance, thoughtful design elements and productivity-focused layout that ushered in a new era of forward-thinking design in the Denver Tech Center. So, what makes this project stand out?
- The exterior form, which cleanly incorporates the parking garages on lower levels, rather than sitting awkwardly on its shoulders.
- The sleek skin, which offsets vertical mullions infilled with white granite panels that dissolve into flat, streamlined ⅜-inch-thick glass.
- The refined details, which highlight the thoughtfulness that was put into material transitions and terminations.
- The interior finishes and materials, were chosen to elevate the building to a luxury level not often seen in spec office buildings.
- The cohesivity between architecture and interiors, which were driven by an established narrative that was regularly used as a guidepost for design decisions and problem-solving throughout the course of the project.
- The expanse of natural light and 360-degree views, which allow tenants to connect with Colorado’s striking vistas from every floor.
With all of these combined elements, 50 Fifty DTC has garnered a slew of honors, including the AIA Award of Distinction 2019, Golden Nugget Award, Denver Mayor’s Design Award 2019, and now this outstanding achievement from AIA WMR. We always strive for excellence—no matter the scope of the project—and these awards are a delightfully surprising result of that dedication.
“We think every project and client we take on deserves award-winning work, regardless of scale or budget, and we enjoy the challenge of delivering on that goal,” Robertson says.
In 2018, we unveiled 50 Fifty, the beginning of a new era in workplace design in the Denver Tech Center. This 400,000-square-foot, 12-story tower is our largest project to date, offering a design-forward solution to the outdated modus operandi of office park building design.
The project has won a slew of awards and media spotlights, including the recent announcement of Clutch’s first 2020 American Institute of Architecture, Western Mountain Region Design Excellence Award.
Thoughtful design has never originated from just one person. In the case of 50 Fifty, an artful concept was executed via multiple teams who poured their hearts into the same end goal.
With all of the accolades the project has received, the Clutch team has decided to turn the tables and applaud a few of those companies who worked tirelessly in the background to bring the vision of 50 Fifty to life.
Martin/Martin, Civil & Structural Engineering Design
Headquartered in Colorado since the 1940s, Martin/Martin, Inc. is a full-service civil and structural consulting engineering firm that has cultivated a reputation built on experience and leadership. Their staff of engineers boasts memberships within renowned organizations such as Engineers Without Borders, The Urban Land Institute and The American Society of Engineers. With such skilled personnel, Martin/Martin tackles a wide variety of projects, including the aviation, residential, mixed-use and industrial sectors. We selected them because of their culture of creativity and integrity, and they delivered nothing short of what was promised.
Our favorite aspect of 50 Fifty: “50 Fifty’s V-columns near the front entrance are a unique twist on the typical vertical building column. The V-columns express both form and function, providing an architectural statement and carrying the loads from the entire south-west corner of the building. A massive plate girder hidden behind the façade at parking level 2 carries the load from the twelve upper levels to the V-columns, which in turn carry the load to the foundation.” – Michelle Black, Project Manager
Harmon, Curtain Wall Facade
The curtain wall not only contributes to the energy performance for the entire building, but the face of the building itself—a first impression and, ultimately, a client’s brand. That type of responsibility is built on a foundation of immense trust, a reputation earned by Harmon’s accomplished, local teams. Combining collaboration with a genuine work ethic—not to mention six decades in the industry—Harmon continually offers stylish solutions motivated by a desire to do things better than what has been done before. Their work on the 50 Fifty curtain wall was nothing short of incredible, and we wouldn’t have achieved such an innovative facade without their ingenuity and ability to translate the vision into reality.
Our favorite aspect of 50 Fifty: “The building is unique due to the mix of exterior and high grade finishes utilized in the façade design and the offset vertical mullions. There is a great dynamic and flow between the VRE1-46 glass, Sierra White Granite, Black ACM panels, and the two different aluminum finishes. The success of the building was really born out of an environment of collaboration amongst the design partners.” – Jacob Johnson, Operations Manager
Hunt Electric, Lighting Design
Hunt Electric has been offering in-house single-source solutions for over 30 years. Headquartered in Salt Lake City, UT—with branches in St. George, UT and Littleton, CO—Hunt Electric is consistently growing and employs, on average, a workforce of 550+. Their offices boast full prefabrication shops where their teams make and assemble products off-site, which ensures Hunt Electric more control over the quality, safety, cost and on-time delivery of their projects. Hunt’s contribution to 50 Fifty was vast, but their innovation really shines at night through the LED-lit fins on the exterior and the interior light wells, creating a memorable and exciting exterior unlike anything else in the Denver Tech Center.
Our favorite aspect of 50 Fifty: “We focused on collaboration from the start. The teamwork associated with this project has led to a solid foundation of relationships based around a project that we can all say that we accomplished together.
The 50 Fifty team always had a can-do attitude. Budget issues were tackled immediately with a collaborative, solution-driven approach and constructability issues were immediately resolved with experienced team members.” – Nate Otterson, Vice President – Colorado Estimating & Preconstruction
A concept without countless hours of hard work and collaborative problem solving is bound to remain just that: an idea. With the design of “people-first” office space at the core of the project, 50 Fifty was the result of exceptional collaboration between teams that were passionate about bringing this unique vision to life. Today, there are twelve stories of visionary brilliance that serve as a standing ovation to everyone responsible for the construction and design of 50 Fifty.
Throughout the course of human history, nearly every dramatic global event—wars, pandemics, political revolutions or climate change—has precipitated a change in the ecology and design of our built environment.
Some of these changes have been lasting and beneficial: the transformation of European capitals like London and Paris due, in part, to the cholera epidemic; 19th-century New York’s reaction to the tenement housing crisis; the rebuilding of Berlin after the war.
As we emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic, the Clutch team has been reviewing the conversations about how our built environment will change and adapt.
- Should we eliminate open-plan offices?
- Will we see the end of large office towers and concentrated business centers?
- Will everyone actually work from home five days a week?
- Will expanding elevators and hallways be necessary?
- Do companies need to replace existing fixtures with antibacterial surfaces
- Should we shift retail environments to be entirely contact-free and online?
The answers are more elusive than speculation can provide right now.
Instead of jumping to conclusions with immediate recommendations, our team has chosen to uncover what questions we need to be exploring vs. trying to find the answers too quickly.
What we do know—as architects and designers, our challenge is to respond to the needs of today while anticipating the needs of tomorrow.
With acute threats like overpopulation, pandemics and climate change forecasted ahead; our role becomes that of mediator.
Rather than adopting a reactive approach where design solutions are simply tailored to the needs of the current crisis, the design community needs to step back, take stock and channel the lessons from the last month, year, decade and century to create integrated solutions that are positioned for resilience.
The pandemic isn’t over. Most lessons will take time to unravel. Instead of claiming that we know the answers, we’d like to pose a series of ideas that the architecture and design field should consider, ideate and debate.
Collectively if we ask the right questions, share information and create dialogue and dissertation, we can establish best practices that benefit the global community, ultimately creating safer spaces, more integrated communities and inspiring environments for humanity to live, work and play.
Read on to see what we’ve learned, how we’re adapting and what’s next.
Here are some of the key questions we are considering at the moment…
What Have We Learned in the Last 6 Months?
- Bureaucracy and the long decision-making process typically associated with architecture and design can be condensed into more efficient timelines.
- While we have been walking around the conversation of what the future of work looks like, the future is now, and we need a new set of best practices to ensure the spaces we are building will be needed ten and even 20 years from now.
- The digital revolution is here. Shopping malls and traditional centers of retail have been waning, but overnight became obsolete. How can we use the same innovation concepts discovered during COVID to reimagine what centers of commerce look like? How can we repurpose the current built environment to fit the needs of the new world?
How Can We Adapt Our Spaces to Prioritize Physical & Mental Wellbeing?
Wellness in building design needs to be amplified. Here are some key questions we are considering in the realm of health and wellness:
- How can we take best practices from the healthcare environment and apply them in a stylish way for hospitality, office and retail?
- What simple solutions can be easily retrofitted to promote wellbeing in public and private spaces?
- What design elements can be harnessed to benefit mental health?
- How can we use design and architecture to ensure individuals—particularly those who are more at risk—can connect and maintain healthy personal relationships?
Can Design Address the Tension Between Economic Drivers & Health Concerns?
The profound changes required for businesses to reopen has been an enormous task, particularly in the hospitality sector, airlines, retail and collaborative workspaces, all of which rely on close proximity to operate at a profitable level.
- What innovation can the design community bring to the restaurant industry?
- How can we create safer retail environments with contactless interactions that also feel personal and inviting?
- What best practices learned from the rapid innovation that happened during COVID can be harvested and then reapplied across industries?
In the weeks, months and years ahead, we will need to vet ideas, adapt solutions and create a series of best practices that will allow businesses to thrive under conditions now and well into the future.
What Happens Next?
COVID-19 is far from resolved. And, while we all have hopes for a vaccine, the truth is that this isn’t the first time and it won’t be the last time.
- What can we do today that will allow our communities to remain resilient?
- How might we create a built environment that can be flexible and adaptable to all of the challenges that lie ahead?
The most important thing is to step back for a moment, gather the best ideas and minds together, and discover ways we can create an ecology that is adaptable, flexible, centered around mental and physical health, and above all, helps to bind our communities together to strengthen the relationship bonds that are so critical to our existence.
While most of the world is at a standstill, construction is considered “essential”, so we remain in a state of movement. Our only goal is to keep projects moving forward and continue to design and create buildings that strengthen our communities.
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The Clutch crew is ringing in this next decade with a celebration of Denver design: projects that are new, innovative, interesting, compelling or generally making waves in the architecture and design community.
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Click through for a tour of winning projects and Denver place-makers who are making Denver a more vibrant and thoughtful city one project at a time.
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This month we are celebrating the most interesting projects in contemporary architecture … according to Clutch.
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Smart development goals for a rapidly growing city
It’s no surprise that commercial real estate is booming in Denver. In Q4 2018 alone, we had 4.12 million square feet of office space and 4.6 million square feet of industrial space under construction (85.4% of which was classified as spec).
While there is unprecedented permit demand for building infrastructure, some critical pieces of supportive infrastructure that create a better quality of life for inhabitants—open space, urban forest, public transit and walkability—have been left out of the conversation.
With the current growth fueling new construction, urban infill projects, and the densification and expansion of Denver Metro Area, our community is racing to address these questions:
- How do we want our city to look, feel, live?
- What changes and policies need to be initiated?
- What values and characteristics need to be preserved?
- How can we build a better Denver?
Downtown Larimer Square. Photo via denver.org.
Planning for a Better Denver
“People love this city and want to live here. This means our challenge is to plan for new residents who will call Denver home over the next 20 years while preserving the neighborhoods, open spaces, and unique places we all love,” says Laura Swartz, Communications Director for the Community Planning and Development department of the City and County of Denver.
And we’re headed in the right direction. In early 2019, the 3-year Denveright planning process culminated in the release of five citywide plans designed to address
- Affordable housing
- Transit corridors
- Commercial development in dense areas
- Protection of historic buildings, architecture and neighborhoods
- Access to green space
- A myriad of other growth opportunities and challenges over the next 20-year period.
The plans were built on 3+ years of extensive research and community engagement. As of April 22, all five plans are approved. Click here to learn more.
Photo by bicycledenver.org
The Perks of a Changing Car Culture
The challenge is: What needs are we planning for? Those of the present? Or those of the future?
As millennials become the dominant workforce population, car culture continues to evolve—albeit slowly—and fewer working professionals either own or seek to own a vehicle. This places a newfound importance and reliability on our public transit infrastructure, and allows us to activate communities now seen as disconnected and removed.
In 2017, Denver Mayor Michael Hancock rolled out the $2 billion Mobility Action Plan designed to greatly reduce emissions, infrastructure deterioration, and traffic deaths by transforming Denver’s public transit system and redesigning streets to be more walkable and bike friendly. The plan also aims to reduce the percentage of ‘solo driving’ commuters from 73 percent to 50 percent by 2030.
Fewer drivers. Fewer cars. Reduced need for parking.
If successful, the plan would create an opportunity to repurpose existing parking spaces to instead address some of the needs of our community—housing, greenspace, urban forest. Projects like the High Line in New York City showcase the potential to reimagine remnants of neglected transportation infrastructure into vibrant, community spaces.
A rendering of North Wynkoop, a 14-acre project that’s transforming an industrial warehouse district into a vibrant community.
Crafting Walkable Communities
We’re seeing more and more projects like North Wynkoop—a 14-acre project conceived and currently being executed by Westfield Company, Works Progress Architecture and Mortenson—that promise to provide all the necessary amenities within a walkable, bikeable environment.
Neighborhood developments like 9+CO will feature a variety of housing options, entertainment, restaurants, open green space, retail, and office buildings all within close proximity.
Once-industrial spaces are also being converted into cultural hubs. Coming later this year, LOT Twenty Eight—an adaptive-reuse development created by Formativ—will turn a historic manufacturing plant in the heart of RiNo into a hub for retail, makers, restaurants, creative offices and entertainment.
“For us, we always approach projects with placemaking in mind,” says Sean Campbell, principal at Formativ. “We look at the user experience and how we can help them be more productive, efficient, engaged, happy and vested in their community.”
Photo via Downtown Denver Partnership
Accelerated Growth = Changing Communities
Denver’s rapid growth has propelled the city into a new economic and developmental era, but not without fallback. As Denver native and Westfield Partner Jonathan Alpert puts it, “We’ve been on a rocket ship for the past decade without a chance to take a breath. We’ve gone from being a manageable city to being expensive.”
Similarly, Campbell cites affordability, mobility and thoughtful design as the three main challenges for Denver development. “Construction is very expensive now; the state bird should be the construction crane,” he says. “Dollars and cents can get in the way of lofty visions, but you have to think about how to work within the budget without sacrificing creativity and design.”
Alpert believes this invites an opportunity for innovation. “Design can solve for a rising cost by getting creative.”
So do we.
An aerial view of Globeville and Elyria-Swansea neighborhoods, where a massive interstate expansion is currently underway. James Chance via the Colorado Trust
The First Neighborhoods to Grow
From a growth standpoint, Denver is blockaded by mountains on the west, but has ample room to grow to the east, north and south. This means that we’re seeing very different approaches to architecture and development depending on where the project is located.
Central, often industrial neighborhoods like RiNo, Globeville and North Wynkoop are being “activated” while outskirt areas like Fitzsimmons in Aurora and DTC are breaking ground on massive mixed-use development projects.
“We are in the process of reviewing five different projects currently in development which will be excellent catalysts for the new Fitzsimmons Innovation Campus,” says Robin Ault, Clutch Design Studio’s director of design and a board member of Fitzsimons Redevelopment Authority Design Review.
For the space in between, development projects are largely focused on transit corridors, both interstate and light rail, with several projects popping up adjacent to light rail stations.
But, in the rush to get structures built and occupied (amidst rising construction costs), few projects are fully capitalizing on the opportunity for design to address both the needs of investors and of our community in the 5, 10, 20 years to come.
A green roof on top of a residential parking structure on Little Raven Street. Kevin J. Beaty/Denverite
Designing for the future
Architecture and design play a major role in shaping our city, especially during a time of rapid growth. At Clutch, we believe creating spaces that adapt to change and promote a healthy and happy community start with:
- Shifting the program. Folding value-add design choices like green roofs, efficient windows, and hospitality-driven communal areas into the program makes for healthier structures and communities while protecting an investment in the long-term.
- Building for longevity. “Sustainability” and “resilience” can sound like buzzwords, but mark the difference between a building that needs to be scraped and/or retrofitted in 10 years, and one that needs minor cosmetic upgrades. Similarly, trend-driven design can quickly look dated. Thoughtful design, on the other hand, may be rooted in the vocabulary of a certain decade, but offers something distinctive that outlives the rise and fall of passing trends.
- Folding in flexibility. Though we can’t fully anticipate our future needs, we can be nimble and responsive in tailoring design to the shifting culture of our community. Parking ratios can be reassessed. Parking structures can be built to allow for future renovations (into commercial or residential space). And buildings can be designed to allow for the increasing role of technology.
- Creating a sense of place. With multi-national, publicly traded development companies buying real estate in Denver, many “carbon-copied” buildings with lackluster architecture and design elements will continue to crop up. But for every cookie cutter building that goes up, a local firm is working hard to design one that’s thoughtful, innovative, relevant and responsive to Denver’s unique demands.
Like Schwartz said, “People love this city and want to live here.” But it’s important that our patterns of growth continue to serve the needs of our community while adding to the character of Denver that attracts and maintains so many residents.
Gone are the days of low-ceiling office environments draped in beige hues and fluorescent light. Developers and business owners alike are realizing that good design is good business, and plays a vital role in both attracting and maintaining tenants and employees.
The new paradigm for office design includes:
— Innovative technological advancements
— New organizational models (think open floor plans, co-working spaces and private pods)
— Comfortable, home-like environments
— Elements that promote a healthier lifestyle
A grand porte-cochère welcomes guests at 50Fifty DTC.
Technology as Steward for Innovative Design
This shift in office design is not simply a trend; it’s a reflection of rapid technological advancements in architecture. From a software standpoint, CAD and energy modeling software have:
— Accelerated the speed at which we can develop new ideas
— Simplified the realization of custom, innovative solutions
— Deepened our understanding of sustainability in architecture
The multi-faceted exterior of 50Fifty DTC is designed/oriented for passive temperature and lighting control—inviting solar heat gain in the winter and minimizing solar heat gain in the summer. This saves money for the client and reduces the building’s environmental impact.
From an engineering standpoint, advancements in glazing, acoustics, building envelope, floor plates, etc. invite continued architectural innovation.
— New fabrication processes and coatings allow for large glass panels optimized for insulation, reflectance and transmittance.
— Advancements in acoustic management and adaptive interior design support open floor plans and mixed-use office environments.
— An increased focus on material placement and building envelope promotes efficiency in architecture.
Through all of these advancements, we’re learning the benefits of daylighting, airflow and passive temperature control in contemporary office design.
“It’s paramount that employees have a connection to the outside environment. Through new technologies, we can take advantage of expansive Colorado views and natural light without compromising the efficiency of the building.” —Robin Ault, Director of Design
In 50Fifty DTC, we used floor-to-ceiling windows and strategic lightwells to ensure that tenants have a continuous connection to the surrounding environment.
Shape Shifter: Designing for New Organizational Models
There’s no one-size-fits-all for the modern office. Instead, the layout includes a mix of area types that all serve separate purposes. Think: co-working spaces, open floor plans, collaborative environments, mixed-use environments, private pods.
As architects, it’s important that we understand the dynamics of a specific organization in order to create environments that are well tailored to their long-term needs. The primary questions we ask with every client are:
— What is the current workflow, climate and culture of your organization?
— How can we use design to support and/or shift any of the above?
— What are the primary functions of the space?
— What adjacencies will best support those functions?
— What level of privacy vs. collaboration is appropriate for your organization?
— How do you want people—executives, employees, clients, guests—to feel in the space?
In general, open floor plans feel bigger, simplify use of natural light and foster connection between employees. Fewer walls also equate to lower costs, allowing us to allocate additional resources towards furniture and finishes.
But, zero-wall office spaces aren’t appropriate for every organization. Not only do open floor plans present new challenges around acoustics and privacy, but they often weave disparate functions into a single environment, requiring us to employ alternative solutions (lighting, dynamic screens, etc.) to create nodes of space within.
“If people don’t feel good in their workspace, they will leave to find something that better fits their preferences and philosophies. Our goal is to create environments that benefit the organization within by promoting individual and collective well being.” — Kristen Tonsager, Head of Interior Design
For an upcoming project, we’ve employed sliding glass partitions to create different atmospheres within the central space while allowing for shared daylight throughout.
Your Home Away From Home
The average American spends more weekday, waking hours at work than at home, so it makes sense that we’re seeing an increased emphasis on comfort, atmosphere, materiality and craftsmanship in the work environment. We’ve created conference rooms that double as dining rooms, workspaces that feel like hotel lobbies, and far-from-utilitarian community environments marked by high-end detailing and luxury design elements.
More and more Denver companies are seeking out iconic designs that inspire and draw people in while more and more employees are seeking healthy work environments that mirror the comforts of home. It’s an exciting time to be in design.
The office kitchen and dining area at Fios Capital will feature high-end appliances and quality finishes typically found in custom homes.
Perhaps the most effective way architecture can be used to advance healthy work environments lies in creating continued opportunities for connection between indoors and outdoors:
— Expansive views
— Circulation of fresh air
— Outdoor walkways and/or work areas
— Rooftop gardens and terraces
Architecture can further promote employee well-being by supporting behaviors such as biking to work, taking the stairs, or seeking a moment of solace in the midst of a busy workday.
— An increasing number of Denver employees are commuting to work via bicycle, public transit or ride-share programs. This trend is expected to continue throughout the 21st century, and should be reflected in how we allocate space.
— No longer an afterthought in office design, stairwells can be used to promote movement while reducing energy usage and reliance on escalators/elevators. To encourage the climb, stairwells should be widened, centralized and finished with a level of detailing consistent with the rest of the design.
— Even collaborative workspaces should consider including separate pods or quiet rooms where employees can enjoy a moment of privacy, take a phone call, nurse a migraine or simply gather their thoughts.
The Hensel Phelps office redesign employs full-length skylights to pull natural light into interior spaces.
Interested in giving your office a modern makeover? Contact us.
In the last decade, Denver has become a boomtown—strewn with bustling restaurants, award-winning breweries and plush lounges. 2018 brought more than 230 new restaurants, bars and coffee shops to the Denver metro area. But, in the same year, nearly 100 closed their doors. In this increasingly competitive market, everything matters: food, drink, service and space. So how do you create an environment that works?
Our Head of Interior Design, Kristen Tonsager, speaks to designing for the service industry and how to create authentic spaces that function as well as they feel.
The brand story of Wild Blue Yonder nods to owners’ shared background in the Air Force. Subtle details in the architecture and interior design of the space invite conversation and provide a direct connection between guests’ experience and owners’ vision.
Touchstone: Brand Story
With restaurant design, it’s particularly important that the architectural elements align with the brand story. This cohesion creates authenticity and a sense of place.
Whether clients come to us with a well-developed brand story or we go on that journey with them, we’ve learned that meaningful design requires clarity of vision. Once defined, this vision can be realized throughout the space—in both literal and abstract ways. Restaurant projects often hold the dreams and ambitions of our clients. It’s a very personal experience to see their vision come to life.
By centralizing the primary kitchen at Tribe Market, we streamlined restaurant cooking operations while inviting intimate guest interactions with various open air food stalls surrounding the core area.
In space planning, the focus is always on function first. We have to understand the equipment and adjacencies required to accommodate the primary functions of the space: cooking, brewing, serving, bartending, etc. It’s easy to get caught up on the public side but efficiency is what makes a space successful and allows for exceptional service experiences.
The primary seating area at Wild Blue Yonder stretches between bar and brewery operations so guests are continually invited to interact with both.
Elevated service industry design involves thinking through not only how but also how much interaction occurs between guests and primary service functions. In Denver, we’ve seen an increased openness in guest services: open kitchens, brewery tours, tableside service, extravagant cocktail prep. But this visibility isn’t right for every concept. We work closely with clients to create thoughtful service interactions tailored to their clientele, staff and brand story.
We also used decorative lighting fixtures to create various zones or vignettes throughout the space. From a distance, all fixtures play into the cohesive brand story, but take a closer look and you’ll notice that each zone offers a unique character and guest experience.
Much of the brand story is revealed in the details of a service industry design—palette, lighting, furniture, texture. Yes, it’s important to select durable, cleanable, abrasion-resistant materials. But it’s equally important to consider what emotions are evoked, and whether or not those emotions fit the character of the design.